Obesity

The Indian Heart foundation is an independent private foundation whose mission is to spread awareness about Obesity, is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. Body mass index (BMI), a measurement which compares weight and height, defines people as overweight (pre-obese) if their BMI is between 25 and 30 kg/m2, and obese when it is greater than 30kg/m2.

Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.

Risk Factors:

Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility, although a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications or psychiatric illness. Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited; on average obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass. Dieting and physical exercise are the mainstays of treatment for obesity. Moreover, it is important to improve diet quality by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods such as those high in fat and sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber. To supplement this or in case of failure, anti-obesity drugs may be taken to reduce appetite or inhibit fat absorption. In severe cases, surgery is performed or an intragastric balloon is placed to reduce stomach volume and/or bowel length, leading to earlier satiation and reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food. Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Obesity is stigmatized in much of the modern world (particularly in the Western world), though it was widely perceived as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times in history, and still is in some parts of the world.

There are Simple Obesity and Secondary Obesity:

Simple Obesity:

Obesity is caused by ingesting too much heat energy and consuming less energy and so storing up too much fat, not by endocarditic or metabolic disease. Most Obese people belong to this type.

Simple Obesity has two types:

  • Constitutional Obesity, or From Infancy type Obesity. Obesity starts from infancy to adult. Usually they have family history of Obesity.
  • They have very good appetite from half a year after birth and body fat cell number begins to increase. Their metabolism is slow and synthesis exceeds catabolism. There will be poor cure effect by limiting diet and strengthening exercise. They are not sensitive to insulin.
  • Acquired Obesity, or From Adult type Obesity, and Diet-induced Obesity. This is caused by intentionally or unintentionally eating too much, called surfeit Obesity. They usually begin to gain weight from early adult times and gain weight mainly on limbs.

There'll be good cure effect by limiting diet and strengthening exercise. Their sensitivity to insulin treatment will recover.   

Secondary Obesity:

It's Symptom Obesity taking some disease as primary disease, occupying fewer than 5% of total obesity. The primary diseases are Cushing's syndrome, metabolic obesity, hypothalamic obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, insulin tumor, etc... The primary disease must be cured; otherwise it's impossible to lose weight.

According to fat distribution, there are five types.

  • Belted Shape Obesity: Fat is mainly accumulated in back, lower abdomen, huckle, hip, and thighs. Their body shapes are similar as those who get Obesity Reproductive Functional Syndrome.
  • Great Trochanter Shape Obesity: Fat is mainly accumulated around Trochanter area, breast, abdomen and pubes. Most obesity after menopause belongs to this type.
  • Lower Limbs Obesity: Fat is distributed from huckle to ankle, sometimes limited to leg and ankle. This type is like Fatty Dystrophy, forming extremely fat at lower body while extremely thin at upper body.
  • Upper Limbs Obesity: Fat is mainly stored at back, hip, breast, neck and face area. Obesity caused by adrenocortical growth, tumor and pituitary basophilic tumor belongs to this type.
  • Hip Obesity: Fat is mainly accumulated in hip, so make hip fat and big. Itís one of features of some nations, belonging to genetic disease.

According to body shape,there are two types:

  • Pear Shape. Most are female. They have narrow shoulders, small breast, slim waist, but fat is mainly accumulated in hip, middle abdomen and thigh surroundings. To improve shape of this type, besides removing fat accumulated in hip, abdomen and thigh, you must strengthen muscle power of breast and abdomen.
  • Apple Shape. Most are male. Fat is mainly stored in abdomen

According to body's tissue nutrition, there are four types.

Fat hoarding type: There are thick layers of fat; Body fat rate exceeds 35% for female while exceeding 30% for male.
Muscle Shape: One of the special features is that their legs look as strong as a radish. The whole body also looks strong and has the same level fat.

Edema Shape: The water inside the body is over 60% of the weight. It's easy to become edema by drinking water.
Mixed Shape: Possess the above three tissue nutrition types.
 

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